The Age Of The Earth: Radio Isotopes

Using various radiometric dating methods to measure
the ages of rock samples consistently produced ages that
varied greatly. This may be explained by the different parent
atoms having decayed at different rates in the past—an
explanation not allowed by evolutionists. These changes in
decay rates could be accounted for by very small changes in
the binding forces within the nuclei of the parent atoms. Years ago, a group of creation scientists set out to explore the question of why radiometric dating methods give inflated age estimates. We know they do because of the aforementioned tests on rocks whose origins were observed. Which of the three main assumptions (initial conditions are known, rate of decay is known, the system is close) is false?

Life on Pangea

So I’m going to places like modern Afghanistan, extreme western China, northern Turkey, or other places where there are somewhat arid climates with mountain belts today. If you create a series of maps in sequence, you can create them in such a way that certain geologic events, from one time slice to the next, to the next, to the next, will blend. It depends a lot on the scale of what you’re trying to show—the whole world versus just four or five states in the West. Wegener didn’t propose something completely new; as he based his idea on earlier observations and suggestions, but in his work he had collected a broad array of evidence and his lectures initiated a fierce discussion in the scientific community. This rough estimate of about 150 million years is close to other measurements of the age of the Atlantic.

The entire Athenian system was organized to obstruct political professionalism, to prevent the emergence of bureaucracy, and to perpetuate an active citizenry as a matter of design. We may rightly fault this democracy for denying power to slaves, women, and resident aliens, who formed the great majority of the population. But these traits were not unique to Athens; they existed throughout the Mediterranean world in the fifth century B.C. What was uniquely Athenian were the institutional forms it developed for a minority of its population — forms that more traditional “civilizations” rendered into the privilege of only a very small ruling class. Until these transformations occur, however, it is important to know the raw materials from which hierarchical society will raise its moral and social edifice. The primal unity of the early community, both internally and with nature, is weakened merely by the elaboration of the community’s social life — its ecological differentiation.

These questions, so crucial for developing an ecological ethics and an ecologically oriented science, cannot stay frozen in the forms used by crude scientistic ideologues for centuries. If nothing else, we must reclaim the right to think freely about ideas and reality without having restrictions imposed upon us by ideologues who merely answer each other’s errors with errors of their own. It must tear down the ecclesiastical barriers that separate it from the free air of nature and from the garden which nourished its intellectual development. We are thus confronted with the paradox that science, an indispensable tool for human well-being, is now a means for subverting its traditional humanistic function. As to broad ideological matters, Christianity had fewer differences with Galileo than either of them realized. The Galilean universe of lifeless matter and perpetual motion differs very little in principle from the Christian view of nature as inherently meaningless without the illumination of a heavenly Supernature.

Genetic Isolation and Evolution

More so than most utopian writers, Fourier left behind pages upon pages of elaborate descriptions of his new Harmonian society, including the most mundane details of everyday life in a phalanstery. His critique of “civilization,” notably of capitalism, was utterly devastating; indeed, it is largely for his critical writings that he earned the greatest amount of praise from later socialist writers. But such a one-sided, rather patronizing treatment of Fourier does him a grave injustice.

Once this fervently republican tradition is extended beyond an agricultural society peopled by self-sufficient farmers, it contains the seeds for its own negation. Perhaps even more striking, this tradition provides a basis not only for the absorption of the “natural arts” by the “artificial crafts” but also for the total mechanization of personal and social life. Neither Jefferson nor the agrarian populists of his day could have prevented the growth of manufactures in the New World, nor could they present a strong ideological case against the increase of nonagricultural pursuits.

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But innovation there surely was — not in the instruments of production but in the instruments of administration. In terms of its far-reaching bureaucracy, legal system, military forces, mobilization of labor, and centralization of power, the Roman Empire at its peak was the heir, if not the equal, of the authoritarian apparatus of preceding empires. These social ideals were to find their culmination in the Taborites of Bohemia, a movement that appeared a century or so after the defeat of the English Peasants’ Revolt. The Taborites were an offshoot of the quasi-Protestant Hussites who, in 1419, rebelled in Prague against German and Papal sovereignty. For nearly two decades, the Hussites successfully resisted the Catholic armies of the Emperor Sigismund and the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire.

Then, when they started to split apart in the Triassic and Jurassic—especially in the Triassic and Cretaceous—the split occurred in such a way that what had been part of North America was actually captured, if you will, by Europe and taken over to become the British Isles. The big European continent that we call Baltica collided with Greenland and a series of micro-continents collided further south, all the way down at least as far as New Jersey, if not down as far the Carolinas. We know that there are places on Earth today where these same kinds of collisions are taking place—in the Alps and Mediterranean region, and the Caucasus region, and so forth. You have to know how the mountains were formed, what the grain of the mountains was. To know the grain of the mountains, you need to know where the hinterland and the center of the mountains were. You need to know where the foreland area is, so that you can show the different styles of mountains.

If the wood still has relatively short-lived radiocarbon inside it, then the age of the supposedly ancient fossils would need revision. Layers of sediment form when various size particles (e.g., dirt, rocks, and vegetation) accumulate in places such as deserts, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Most texts teach that it takes a long time for these sediments to build up, with older layers buried beneath younger layers. Fossils found in lower layers are deemed to be older than those in the upper layers, older on the bottom younger on the top.

At the present time it appears that the conventional radiocarbon dating technique is on relatively firm ground for dates which fall within the past 3,000 years. For periods of time prior to this, there are legitimate reasons to question the validity of the conventional results and seek for alternative interpretations. Radiometric dating is a technique that uses the change
of one isotope, the parent, to another, the daughter, to
determine the amount of time since the decay began. If these dates were true, they would seem to discredit
the biblical account of a young earth of about 6,000 years. So in order to date most older fossils, scientists look for layers of igneous rock or volcanic ash above and below the fossil.


To the extent that we can think in terms of sizable masses of people, we must think more in terms of ideological crusades rather than of highly controlled labor forces. Owing to its decentralized character and its Christian sense of individual worth, medieval society was simply not capable of utilizing, much less mobilizing, huge numbers of “commoners” to monumentalize itself in public works. For all the abuses of feudal society, corvee labor was confined to the maintenance of public roads and tenant-type systems of food cultivation for the manorial lords, to defensive structures that were needed by the community as well as the barons, and to miscellaneous “gifts” of labor to the nobility and Church. The grim fatalism slowly permeating western humanity’s response to technics derives in large part from its ethical ambivalence toward technical innovation. The modern mind has been taught to identify technical sophistication with a “good life” and, to a large extent, with a social progressivism that culminates in human freedom. But none of these images has been suitably clarified, at least not from a historical perspective.

Nor do piecemeal steps, however well-intended, even partially resolve problems that have reached a universal, global, and catastrophic character. If anything, partial “solutions” serve merely as cosmetics to conceal the deep-seated nature of the ecological crisis. They thereby deflect public attention and theoretical insight from an adequate understanding of the depth and scope of the necessary changes. The second phase of the redevelopment of the celebrated Park Hill estate in Sheffield is more modest and subtle than its Stirling Prize-nominated first phase, completed nearly 10 years ago. The light-touch approach taken by Mikhail Riches included insulating the existing brickwork internally and carefully cleaning it externally.

These eruptions sent cooling sediments and gasses into the atmosphere, causing drastic climate change that supercooled our planet. This precambrian era couldn’t have been different from the explosion of life that followed. The supercontinent cycle, first proposed by Damien Nance in the 1980s, is a cycle no one organism will ever be able to experience. Beginning with a supercontinent, the tectonic plates will eventually begin to drift apart. Eventually the landmasses begin to connect on some other side of the Earth to create a new supercontinent.